Currently, the Buckley lab is primarily focused on studying diseases of the eye i. Chung's research interests include inherited retinal diseases and genetic factors contributing to age-related macular degeneration. Chung has an adjunct faculty appointment as a member of the University of Rochester Center for Visual Sciences and participates in teaching a graduate-level course in the Department of Optics.
In collaboration with CVS, she is developing new adaptive optics technology for retinal imaging to study early cellular changes in macular diseases. She was awarded a research grant from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to study patients with macular diseases using adaptive optics imaging technology and multifocal electroretinography, a clinical test of the retinal photoreceptors. The main goal of work in the DeAngelis lab is to understand the neural basis of visual perception and visually-guided behavior. A major challenge is to understand how the brain computes the location and movement of objects in three-dimensional space, and how these computations take into account motion of the observer.
The approach is to link neuronal activity to perception as closely as possible using a combination of electrophysiology and psychophysics in alert trained monkeys. Major emphasis is placed on establishing causal links between neural activity and behavior using techniques such as electrical microstimulation and reversible inactivation. Current research in the DeAngelis lab has 3 main foci:. Students in the lab are trained in quantitative electrophysiology and psychophysics, statistical analysis of neural and behavioral data, and computational modeling of neural population codes.
Feldon's research interests involve using his expertise in thyroid eye disease to investigate the role of fibroblasts in Graves' disease.
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In a collaborative effort with Dr. Richard Phipps, the aim is to develop a model of how immune system cells interact with orbital fibroblasts. The hope is to develop rational therapy treatments for this and possibly other autoimmune diseases affecting eye structures. Feldon's directs an ophthalmology photographic reading center for federal, industry, and foundation sponsored clinical trials.
He also collaborates with Dr. Krystel Huxlin on mechanisms of visual restoration after stroke. In addition he is an inventor of devices for ophthalmology including tonometers and holds seven patents. Professor Fienup's research interests center around imaging science. His work includes unconventional imaging, phase retrieval, wavefront sensing, and image reconstruction and restoration.
These techniques are applied to passive and active optical imaging systems, synthetic-aperture radar, and biomedical imaging modalities. His past work has also included diffractive optics and image quality assessment. I am a translational researcher with a history of research studies on the basic neurophysiology of schizophrenia and autism. My work places special emphasis on the identification of endophenotypic markers in childhood neuropsychiatric diseases and in the linking of these biomarkers to the underlying genotype.
Human retina and inner ear are the most common places of genetic disorders that cause blindness and deafness due to the degeneration of retinal and inner ear neurons. To understand the disease processes, the research in our Laboratory focuses on elucidating the molecular mechanisms regulating the normal development and maintenance of these neurons. Using homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem ES cells to mutate these TF genes, we have shown that these TFs function in a genetic cascade to regulate the differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells into specific types of neurons and to regulate the maturation and survival of post-differentiation neurons.
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We intend to explore the application of these factors in neuronal protection and in the regeneration of specific retinal and inner ear neurons from stem cells. My primary scientific interest lies in understanding how the brain forms percepts and how it uses them to make decisions, especially in the visual domain. In particular, I am interested in how the brain's perceptual beliefs about the outside world are represented by the responses of populations of cortical neurons.
To that end I use tools from machine learning to construct mathematical models that aim to explain neural responses and behavior. Hunter's research interests include mechanisms of light-induced retinal damage and development of non-invasive fluorescence imaging techniques to study retinal function in healthy and diseased eyes.
Broadly, my research is focused on using multi-disciplinary, collaborative approaches to better understand how the damaged, adult visual system can repair itself. Is the system capable of such plasticity? What are the principles governing such processes?
Our first research avenue examines recovery of visual functions after visual cortex damage in adulthood. In addition to behaviorally characterizing the properties of the recovery that can be attained with different training paradigms, we are using attentional and other manipulations e.
Faculty Research : Center for Visual Science : University of Rochester
Functional MRI and EEG are also employed to study how the residual cortical circuity is functionally altered by both damage and training. Our second research avenue examines the interplay between ocular biology and optical quality. The eye provides the sensory input to the entire visual system and it relies on a transparent and properly-shaped cornea.
Corneal damage and scarring is one of the major causes of blindness world-wide, for which there is no effective treatment. Our laboratory is unique in having developed a behaviorally fixating animal model in which we can reliably and non-invasively measure optical aberrations of the eye, while also studying and manipulating the cell and molecular biology of the cornea. By applying knowledge gained in this work, we recently began work to develop a non-damaging form of laser refractive correction - IRIS. Instead of ablating the cornea to change its shape, IRIS uses a femtosecond laser to alter its refractive index, thus changing the cornea's light-bending properties.
This fully-customizable method represents both a new area of theoretical investigations into corneal biology related to laser-tissue interactions, and a whole new paradigm for vision correction in humans. Jacobs studies perceptual cognition -- learning, memory, recognition, categorization -- in both visual and multisensory visual-auditory, visual-haptic environments using behavioral experimentation and computational modeling. Our perceptual environments are highly redundant.
People obtain information from multiple sensory modalities e. Even within visual environments, people obtain information from multiple visual cues e. This perceptual redundancy raises many important issues. For example, how do people integrate the information provided by multiple sensory sources? How do people know which sources are reliable and which sources are unreliable? Do people integrate the information from multiple sources in a statistically optimal way? As a second example, people often show excellent cross-modal transfer of knowledge. For instance, a person who is trained to visual categorize a set of objects can often categorize those same and similar objects when the objects are grasped but not seen.
What are the mechanisms underlying cross-modal transfer?
Do people represent objects and events in an amodal or modality-independent format? If so, what is the nature of this format? These questions, and many more, are addressed through a combination of experimentation and modeling. Using techniques from the statistics and machine learning literatures, we often build models, known as Ideal Observers, of statistically optimal performance on a task. By comparing the model's performance on this task with people's performances, we can evaluate whether people are behaving in an optimal manner. If not, further experimentation and modeling allows us to probe the "bottlenecks" preventing better performance.
The Knox group is working on new approaches to vision correction including femtosecond micromachining in ophthalmic polymers such as hydrogels and hydrophobic acrylates. The studies may result in new approaches to vision correction involving IOL surgery and other applications. In collaboration with Dr. Huxlin, Knox has carried out studies of refractive index modifications using femtosecond micromachining in live corneal tissue without tissue destruction and cell death. Another area of research involves use of high resolution nonlinear imaging techniques to study diffusion of dopants in the live cornea, and these have potential applications in corneal drug delivery.
He is studying the use of novel compounds to inhibit the development of PVR and the role of inflammatory cells in the development of PVR.
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His other areas of research interests include retinal imaging, and retinal vascular disease, including diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion, and endophthalmitis. He is collaborating with researchers to develop segmentation algorithms for optical coherence tomography and algorithms to quantify retinal vascular changes.
Research in the Lalor lab aims to explore quantitative modelling approaches to the analysis of sensory electrophysiology in humans. Such a framework has two important advantages over more traditional approaches to this type of research: 1 It enables the examination of the neural processing of natural stimuli such as speech, music and video, thereby facilitating the flexible design of highly naturalistic cognitive neuroscience experiments. And, 2 it allows for improved spatiotemporal resolution and accordingly improved interpretability of non-invasively recorded neuro-electric responses to such naturalistic stimuli.
We seek not only to develop these modelling approaches, but also to exploit them in tackling a number of specific cognitive and clinical neuroscience questions. In terms of cognition much of this work has focused on how we direct our attention to behaviorally relevant stimuli in our environment. This includes studies on visual spatial attention and more recent work on the cocktail party problem. In addition, we are interested in how we integrate visual and auditory information when processing natural speech.
My work sits at the interface between visual perception and visual physiology. All my research is connected by the idea that visual perception can be explained in terms of underlying neural mechanisms. The work involves both perceptual experiments to explore performance, and physiological ones to record the activity of single neurons, the aim being, where possible, to link observations in the two domains. My recent work has focused on two broad problems: how the visual selectivities of neurons become elaborated at successive levels in the visual pathway, and how signals about color are represented in the brain.
Glaucoma is a complex group of diseases where many different genetic and environmental factors conspire to cause vision loss.
While there are many different causes of glaucoma, the ultimate cause of vision loss in all glaucomas is the death of retinal ganglion cells RGCs , the output neurons of the retina. Therefore, glaucoma is a neurodegeneration. Our lab focuses on the neurobiology of glaucoma.
Primarily, we use mouse models of glaucoma and advanced mouse genetics to probe the pathophysiology of glaucoma.
Specifically, we are interested in understanding the molecular processes that lead to RGC death in glaucoma and why are RGCs more likely to die in some patients than in others.